Each person in the room had to state aloud which comparison line A, B or C was most like the target line. All participants reported feeling uncertainty and doubt as a result of the differing opinions of themselves and the group. The level of conformity seen with three or more confederates was far more significant. The other confederates were asked to pick incorrect answers for 12 of the 18 trials. You do this because you want to be accepted by the group and because you assume the others know more about table etiquette than you do. Although the correct answer appeared obvious to the researchers, this was not necessarily the experience of participants.
Some modern psychologists have found that the percentage of people who conform is significantly lower than what Asch found. Effects of group pressure on the modification and distortion of judgments. The experimenter found the situation so odd, that even he joined in at laughing at the confederate! Perhaps one of the most influential studies into the field of majority influence is that of Asch. However, perhaps the most famous conformity experiment was done by Solomon Asch 1951 and his line judgment experiment. Despite, though, how many people preach these words, they still succumb to the mind numbing effects without even realizing it, because they are not fully aware of the causes of this topic. Studies of independence and conformity: A minority of one against a unanimous majority.
People were scared to be different as they would have been often been accused of being disloyal to society after the war. In 1951, Solomon Asch carried out several experiments on conformity. When they were permitted to write down their answers after hearing the answers of others, their level of conformity declined to about one third what it had been in the original experiment. He asked participants individually to estimate how many beans the bottle contained. In contrast eastern cultures such as Asian countries are more likely to value the needs of the family and other social groups before their own. If you are like most people, you look around and use the fork everyone else is using. Although he used up to 7 people, Quantitative Data includes statistics and numbers to make his claim for high in reliability and 1016 Words 5 Pages making, an experiment was performed to test the hypothesis; If a person is presented with visual information in a group setting and asked questions about their perception of what they see, will they truthfully respond if others in the group unanimously choose the wrong answer? Also, although the naive participants were members of a 'group', it didn't really resemble groups that we are part of in everyday life.
When other races, genders, and ages are included in the group, things change. How likely are you to go along with a group, even if you think they might not be right? It is certainly not that case, however, according to vast amounts of research into the area. Majority size Asch also examined whether decreasing or increasing the majority size had an influence on participants' level of conformity. Retaining the use of male college students, these variations varied the size of the group from seven to nine ; the number of trials 12 trials with 7 being critical, rather than 18 with 12 being critical trials. The difference in Asch's findings and those of others might also have to do with the people being tested. Research that conformity decreases if they have support from at least one other individual in a group.
The study opened the door for other experiments on conformity and on related topics, such as obedience. In the actor condition also, the majority of participants' responses remained correct 63. How often are we faced with making a judgment like the one Asch used, where the answer is plain to see? Normative Conformity When asked why they gave the wrong answer, most people responded one of two ways: either they said that they had conformed because they thought that, because the others agreed, they must know something that the participant didn't, or they said that, even though they knew that it was the wrong answer, they went along because they didn't want to be made fun of. . Remember that all but one of the people there were really confederates. The real participant did not know this and was led to believe that the other seven participants were also real participants like themselves. Do you think of yourself as a conformist or a non-conformist? If you are like most people, you probably believe that you are non-conformist enough to stand up to a group when you know you are right, but conformist enough to blend in with the rest of your peers.
This suggests the number of people in a majority group has little effect on conformity levels. Participants knew they were in a research study and may simply have gone along with the demands of the situation demand characteristics. Current issues in European social psychology. Across all these papers, Asch found the same results: participants conformed to the majority group in about one-third of all critical trials. Asch used all white men of about the same age. Only men were tested by Asch. Rather than make individual judgments they tend to come to a group agreement.
But the addition of further confederates made little difference. Before the experiment, all actors were given detailed instructions on how they should respond to each trial card presentation. When the group size increased to two confederates, the real participants conformed on 12. His experiment was an ambiguous situation involving a glass bottle filled with beans. In psychological terms, refers to an individual's tendency to follow the unspoken rules or behaviors of the social group to which he or she belongs. Finally, there are ethical issues: participants were not protected from psychological stress which may occur if they disagreed with the majority. In America in the 1950s students were unobtrusive members of society whereas now they occupy a free questioning role.
The stooges get the right answer on the first two trials but then start to make deliberate mistakes. Asch wanted to prove that conformity can really play a big role in disbelieving our own senses. As you can see, the task is simple, and the correct answer is obvious. From this perspective, the results are viewed as a striking example of people publicly endorsing the group response despite knowing full well that they were endorsing an incorrect response. Apparently, it is difficult to be a minority of one but not so difficult to be part of a minority of two. In subsequent research experiments, Asch explored several variations on the paradigm from his 1951 study.