With respect to people, this is a process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, and modifying their behavior to fit the needs of the organization. The score assigned can infer the types of jobs the person is best suited for. Taken too literally, Theories X and Y seem to represent unrealistic extremes. According to McGregor, the p … erception of managers on the nature of individuals is based on various assumptions. David McClelland David McClelland, born May 20, 1917, earned his doctorate at Yale University in 1941. This was the underlining basis for the beginning of his interest in personal need and motivation Boeree, 2006.
In other words, the creativity, resourcefulness and innovative potentiality of the employees can be utilized to solve organizational problems. If the job is rewarding and satisfying, then it will result in employees' loyalty and commitment to organization. Managers who choose the Theory X approach have an authoritarian style of management. A series of experimental facts established the validity of the model. It is attitude not attributes.
Compare the assumptions Theory X makes about employees with those of Theory Y. Self-actualization needs are stage seven of this theory. These managers tend to provide more freedom and opportunity for career growth. They exercise their physical and mental efforts in an inherent manner in their jobs. The hard approach to motivation relies on coercion, implicit threats, micromanagement, and tight controls— essentially an environment of command and control.
According to this theory employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. Administration in Social Work: 356. Other employees are never proud of their work. Their logical capabilities should be fully utilized. It can be difficult for organizations and employees to make life-time employment commitments.
An organization with this style of management encourages participation and values individuals' thoughts and goals. Theory X is the style that predominated in business after the mechanistic system of scientific management had swept everything before it in the first few decades of the 20th century. Marie Curie suggested, in 1899, that when atoms disinte … grate, they contradict Dalton's idea that atoms are indivisible. Such employees are externally motivated they require an outside force to compel them to perform their duties Theory X and Theory Y: Understanding Team Member Motivation, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2009, from Value Based Management. They believe that most of the people are high performers in a proper work environment.
The employees have skills and capabilities. As we can see from this example the needs are not wholly a step by step progression but rather work with each other to support the potential for the higher order needs to be met. It implies that employees are reluctant to organizational changes. Theory-X assumptions are: 1 most people dislike and will avoid it to the extent possible, therefore 2 they must be continually coerced, controlled, and threatened with to get the work done, and that 3 they have little or no , prefer to avoid , and choose above everything else. A close reading of The Human Side of Enterprise reveals that McGregor simply argues for managers to be open to a more positive view of workers and the possibilities that create enthusiasm. Long before that, Michael Faraday's electrolysis experiments and laws suggested that, just as an atom is the fundamental particle of an element, a fundamental particle for electricity must exist.
Additionally, the freedom for individuals to move among the needs can lead to frustration-regression where needs are not being properly met resulting in a negative move to a lower need with less productivity Value Based Management. He suggested that management could use either set of needs to motivate employees, but better results would be gained by the use of Theory Y, rather than Theory X. He referred to this as the carrot and stick approach, as the carrot would be the reward hanging in front of them they would work hard to get it, even though reaching the carrot would not be possible. This theory states that managers evaluate the workplace and choose their leadership style based upon both internal and external conditions presented. An average employee can learn to admit and recognize the responsibility.
The rationale for the drawn-out time frame is that it helps develop a more dedicated, loyal, and permanent workforce, which benefits the company; the employees, meanwhile, have the opportunity to fully develop their careers at one company. This also states that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and typically certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. A close supervision is required on part of managers. There are, however, exceptions to frustration-regression. Introduction There are many different types of management style and much debate on which type is the most effective in getting the highest output from the work force. Some partial evidence exists for the support of the lower order needs, physiological and safety, while the concept of self-actualization suffers from vague definitions and scant empirical evidence Wahba and Bridwell, 1976. Since the employee does not want to work, he must be persuaded, compelled, or warned with punishment so as to achieve organizational goals.
Radioactivity played an important part. Chapman, 2009 This shows why it is a good idea to know what needs a person has to properly motivate them in the right manner and to expect that not all employees are motivated by challenge. He suggested that management could use either set of needs to motivate employees, but better results would be gained by the use of Theory Y, rather than Theory X. User assumes all risk of use, damage, or injury. Many believe that his theory should not only be altered to include this new need, but also that textbooks and other educational sources should be updated as well.