Term independent variable Definition the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied Term confounding variable Definition a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment. Abdul Razak Habib Course Leader: Assoc. If they get similar results by using different materials, confidence in that finding grows. Using naturalistic observation, researchers have found that people are more likely to laugh in situations than in situations. Term behaviorism Definition the view that psychology: 1 shoud be an objective science that 2 studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
The total effect of all actions weathering, mass wasting, and erosion that lower the surface of the continents. Sometimes scientific inquiry refutes skeptics. Psychologist approach the world of behavior with a curious skepticism, persistently asking two questions:. The best basis for generalizing is from a representative. Turn theories into predictions 2. Three phenomena- hindsight bias, judgmental overconfidence, and our tendency to perceive patterns in random events illustrate why we cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense.
If your level of test anxiety goes down as your time spent studying for the exam goes up, would you say these events are positively or negatively correlated? Each of these simple and fun video lessons is about five minutes long and is sequenced to align with the Thinking Critically With Psychological Science textbook chapter. In the long run, the restaurant can save much by adopting the system that the researchers are introducing to them. Chapter 1 introduces a number of concepts and issues that will play an important role in later chap- ters. Cognitive: How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information. Behavior Genetics: How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences. Our intuition may tell us that familiarity breeds contempt, that dreams predict the future, and that emotional reaction coincide with menstrual phase. Term psychology Definition the science of behavior and mental processes Term nature-nurture issue Definition the longstanding controversy over the relatiev contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
Psychoanalysis: How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts. When put to the test, can its predictions be confirmed? Define what you are studying in terms of specific operations. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning. A Healthful Diet Can Prevent Some Diseases and Reduce Risk for Others Recognition of the link between certain illnesses, such as scurvy, rickets, and pellagra, and nutritional status was the impetus for establishing recommendations for the general population. Hindsight bias and overconfidence often lead us to overestimate our intuition. Term natural selection Definition the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
It is the science that studies foods: how foods nourish our bodies, and influence our health. The results are tricky because it matters how the questions are worded and how the respondents are chosen. Statistical Analysis Hypotheses Testing 1. Critical thinking is just smart thinking. This penetration is made possible by open spaces in the.
By analyzing the two definitions given above, an individual can see that critical thinking involves formulating hypothesis, seeking explanations and gathering evidence in order to prove if a certain idea is correct or incorrect. Healthful diets can reduce risk of chronic disease that develops slowly over a period of time. Term psychiatry Definition a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical for example, drug treatments as well as psychological therapy. The fact that we need to lay aside our preconceptions and be open to something else all together, gives us a more realistic result. Term counseling psychology Definition a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living often related to school, work, or relationships and in achieving greater well-being. Chapter 1 also explains how psychologists, using the scientific method, employ the research strategies of description, correlation, and experimentation in order to objectively describe, pre- dict, and explain behavior. This uncertainty cannot be eliminated completely, although it can be minimized with the help of research methods.
Should you revise or reject theory? Earning College Credit Did you know… We have over 160 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. Chapter 1 explains the limits of intuition and com- mon sense in reasoning about behavior and mental processes. Term correlation Definition a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other Term correlation coefficient Definition a statistical index of the relationship between two things from -1 to +1. Longitudinal Studies: same group, over a period of time. The Scientific Attitude Curiosity, a passion to explore and understand without misleading or being misled. The three major types of rocks are sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks.
These definitions are carefully worded so that the research can be replicated with different groups or materials. Publish, Criticize, and Replicate Results: Report findings in a scientific journal so that others can test your hypothesis and replicate your findings. Cognitive: How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information. Erosion- is the detachment, removal and transportation of fragmented rock material. Behavior Genetics: How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences.
To learn more, visit our. Putting a scientific attitude into practice requires not only skepticism but also humility, because we may have to reject our own ideas. Goals of managerial accounting are to supply information that facilitates decision making. Term cognitive neuroscience Definition the interdiciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition including perception, thinking, memory, and language. Term testing effect Definition enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information. What is meant by denudation? The science of nutrition grew out of work linking nutrient deficiencies to specific illnesses. Watson: Behaviorists study and experiment with observable behavior.
Behavior: Anything an organism does. Most research psychologists today agree with 1 but not with 2. Weathered rock often has a different color or texture from neighboring unexposed bedrock. Random sampling in surveys effect results as well. Attitudes of curiosity, skepticism, and humility helped make modern science possible.