Select one or two alternative theories of human personality and compare and contrast with that of Freud. The third tier, life narrative, contains broad elements of personality, such as one's life story, autobiographical memory, and sense of identity. It is the general mental adaptability to new problems and conditions of life. If you lack air, you may find it a challenge to communicate effectively. Volume 1: A Theory of Personality. Distantiation means the ability to bring objectivity - emotional detachment - to personal decision-making.
So his theory is useful far beyond psychoanalysis - it's useful for any application involving personal awareness and development - of oneself or others. Journal of Mental Science 105:61-75. Crisis stage one is 'Trust versus Mistrust', which is easier to understand than some of the others. This is the birth of the secondary personality from emotionally selected elements of the primary personality. These cultural norms can dictate which personality traits are considered important.
To account for these, Freud 1923 introduced the concept of ego. Character and Moral Traits Character is the sum of all tendencies, which the individual possesses. In this respect the 'feel' of the model is similar to other flexible human development frameworks for example, , and. No fresh attempts comparable to that of Dollard and Miller 1950 to translate Freudian ideas into the language of S-R reinforcement theory have been made. A widely used conception of organization is that of hierarchy—of which there are different orders. Moreover, the use of loveoriented disciplinary techniques e. Age range and other descriptions are general interpretations and were not shown specifically like this by Erikson.
For example a healthy balance at crisis stage stage one Trust v Mistrust might be described as experiencing and growing through the crisis 'Trust' of people, life and one's future development and also experiencing and growing a suitable capacity for 'Mistrust' where appropriate, so as not to be hopelessly unrealistic or gullible, nor to be mistrustful of everything. Some psychologists have joined sociologists in preferring to make configurations of this kind, rather than personality itself, basic units for study, e. Genetics: The expression of inherited genes plays a role in determining personality. Not every one can be a good leader. Water Signs: Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces Water people are emotional, intuitive, deeply creative, empathetic, spiritual and psychic. Research shows that the strength of personality traits varies greatly across cultures.
Erikson's model, which from the start offers a different and more socially oriented perspective, continues through to old age, and re-interprets Freudian sexual theory into the adult life stages equating to Erikson's crisis stages. Stagnation is an extension of Isolation which turns inward in the form of self-interest and self-absorption. Erikson never established any absolute measurement of emotional difficulty or tendency as to be defined as a malignancy or maladaptation. For example, translocation of primordial ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm tissue from a fresh zygote will have one effect during the first few hours following fertilization and a different effect 48 hours later. Conner Howard Tennen Personality Term that has three uses in describing the self: 1 the sum of the characteristics that make up physical and mental being, including appearance, manners, habits, tastes, and moral character; 2 the characteristics that distinguish one person from another individuality ; and 3 the capacity to engage in mental processes, that is, possessing consciousness according to psychical researcher James H. It may be resuscitated by another attack of amnesia or under hypnosis, in which case it will act as an independent personality.
Pages 3-49 in and Henry A. In animal psychology there has been a great deal of discussion and experimentation directed to the question of whether all striving is in the interest of drive reduction. Describing these unhelpful outcomes, Erikson later introduced the terms ' maladaptation' overly adopting 'positive' extreme and 'malignancy' adopting the 'negative' extreme. The term personality consequently refers to the individual as object the object of external evaluation whereas the concept of self refers to the individual as subject as the source of action and self-reflection. Behavior Some definitions of personality, such as those of McClelland 1951, p.
Behavioural consistency personality exists because most individuals operate on the basis of a small repertoire of interpretive schemas or scripts, which they then use to guide action in a wide variety of particular circumstances. Such behavior leads to punishment and consequences of feeling guilty and sorrow. Then, in order of prepotency, there are safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualizing needs. The id is the aspect of personality present at birth. Dating and fondling quickly push schoolwork and sports and anything else encouraged by parents and figures of authority into second place.
Facial and vocal games with adults e. Traits are controversial because they do not always predict how a person will behave or feel in a given situation because situations often constrain behavior. Individuals with poor insight engage in more primitive psychological defenses like denial, and either are clueless about who they are or try to convince themselves they are something they are not. Each crisis stage relates to a corresponding life stage and its inherent challenges. Such knowledge is often associative in nature and measured indirectly in ways that bypass self-report for example, using computerized tasks adapted from. Pleasure is normally characterized by a perception of lowered intensity of internal stimulation and a context in which pain or discomfort is being reduced, hunger or thirst is being gratified, or certain forms of tactile stimulation i.
Few people see themselves in terms of traits or characteristic adaptations, but most think of their identities or their personal histories when asked to reflect on their personalities. If you naturally relate to Freud's ideas fine, otherwise leave them to one side. The dictionary of personality and social psychology. When you understand the elements, the traits they provide and how their weighting deeply affects you, astrology has a new meaning. In contrast, various other approaches, such as those of Jung, Adler, and Rogers, have rejected the notion of separate developmental stages.
Other material relevant to personality may be found in; ; , article on; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; , article on; ; : ; ; ; ; , article on; ; and in the biographies of; ; ; ; ; ;. Erikson takes Freud's theory a step further in stating that early childhood experience is important, but the individual develops with a social context Wikia Inc. Fun: They are the party lovers, the ones who want the music cranked up. Guilt results from being admonished or believing that something is wrong or likely to attract disapproval. This appointment was pivotal: it introduced Erikson to Montessori education methods, to psychoanalysis, to Anna Freud lifelong friend and collaborator of Dorothy Burlingham , and also to the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, Sigmund Freud's centre of psychoanalytical excellence. The relationship of this interest to the original motive may disappear; the new interest becomes a strong motive in its own right.