Thus, zygote or oospore is the first cell of sporophyte generation. The germination of a large number of spores develops several protonema intermingled due to which a large gametophores are developed. In contrast to the vascular plants, the gametophyte haploid generation of bryophytes constitutes the larger plant form, while the small sporophyte diploid generation grows on or within the gametophyte and depends upon it for nutrition. Question1: First land inhabiting plants are a Angiosperms b Gymnosperms c Bryophytes d Pteridophytes Question2: Which one of the following is not a cryptogam a Algae b Bryophyta c Pteridophyta d Gymnosperms Question3: Triploid condition is only present in a Bryophytes b Pteridophytes c Gymnosperms d Angiosperms Question4: Which one of the following is not a member of thallophyta a Spirogyra b Mucor c Moss d Both b and c Question5: Archegoniatae include a Algae, fungi and viruses b Algae, lichens and bryophytes c Bryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnosperms d Pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms Question6: In which of the following groups would you place a plant which produces seeds but lacks flower and fruits a Fungi b Bryophytes c Pteridophytes d Gymnosperms Q. Fertilization ends the gametophytic phase. The four rectangular cells divide by a periclinal wall to produce endothecium and amphithecium. Apospory: Development of gametophyte from sporophyte without the formation of spores is known as apospory.
Within the midrib narrow thick-walled conducting cells are present. Sexual Reproduction l The plants are monoecious, autoecious and protandrous, i. Below the epidermis is spongy parenchyma. The inner central cell divides by transverse division into an outer primary neck canal cell and an inner primary venter cell Fig. The thin parenchymatous cells of other layers occupy the major part of the operculum. Endothecium: In the theca region of the capsule, the endothecium cell divides first by a curved vertical wall. Primary neck canal cell undergoes transverse divisions to form a row of neck canal cells.
These inner teeth are yellow and linear-lanceolate in shape; they are about two-thirds of the length of the outer teeth. Sexual Reproduction: It is advanced oogamous type. Structure of Sporogonium A mature sporogonium is borne at the end of a female branch. Structure and Development of Antheridium Structure: A mature antheridium is club-shaped. A voucher specimen is a pressed and thoroughly dried plant sample deposited in a herbarium, and is intended to be a permanent record supporting research purposes. The inner peristomial teeth usually do not exhibit hygroscopic movements but act as a further check over the spore sac. The spore wall is differentiated into an outer smooth, coloured exosporium and an inner colour less hyaline, smooth endosporium.
The male sperms move out in a mass. Chloronemal stage is characterised by irregular branching, right angle colourless cross walls, and many evenly distributed discoid chloroplast. By Gemmae: During unfavorable conditions, the terminal cells of the protonemal branches divide by transverse, longitudinal divisions and form green multicellular bodies of 10-30 cells Fig. The gemmae or tubers develop into new plants under favourable conditions. The main body contains a mass of spermatogenesis cells.
Later the embryo grows into a sporophyte or sporogonium. They are enclosed by special leaves called perigonial leaves. Of these 108 are accepted species names. Select the criterion by which you wish to search Scientific name, Genus, Family, etc. Similarly by periclinal divisions fourth and fifth ring of 32 cells are formed Fig. The oospore divides and redivides to form embryo. Ä Apophysis : It appears as an expanded part of the seta.
Apophysis: Apophysis is slightly swollen basal sterile region of the capsule. Plant is small about 1-3 cm long, stem is erect and branched. Protonema: The spore, which is unit of gametophyte on its germination produces a protoneus. The Plant List includes a further 56 scientific plant names of infraspecific rank for the genus Funaria. When developed from the wounded parts of the sporophyte such as from sterile cells of the capsule and seta, they exhibit a phenomenon of apospory.
Vegetative structure of gametophyte Structure of Thallus Funaria plant is a gametophyte. The outer wall is thick, smooth, brown and known as exosporium, while the inner wall is thin, hyaline and called endosporium. Venter encloses a basal egg cell oosphere and upper smaller venter canal cell. Androcytes ooze out in the form of a viscous fluid through this pore. The terminal cell of the paraphyses is large, nearly subspherical and capitate, but the cells below it are narrow, elongated and rich in chloroplasts. As a result of contraction of the distended wall of the antheridium, a hydrostatic pressure is developed within the antheridial cavity causing androcytes to ooze out in the form of a viscous fluid that reaches the air-water interface within the perigonium. The seta consists of central conducting strand.
This layer divides periclinally to form two layers of 32 cells. Adult Gametophore: It is a long 1-3 cm in height and differentiated into rhizoids, axis stem and leaves. Also browse for more study materials on Biology. The exosporium may rupture at one or both ends of the spores producing germ tube at one or both the ends, which are opposite to each other. The cells continuous with the inner side of the hypodermis constitute spongy layer.
Protonema has green epiterranean chloronemal branches chlornema and non-green subterranean rhizoidal branches caulonema. Both these cells are Conducting in nature. Each gemma develops into a new plant. Paraphyses are protective in function. Rhizoids arise from the base of a bud Fig. It helps in conduction of water and mineral nutrients.
In each mature archegonium, neck canal cell and venter canal cells degenerate to form mucilage. External features The plant body is a gametophyte. Both apical cells cut out alternate segments and form the elongated filamentous structure of young sporogonium Fig. It consists upper elongated slender neck and basal globular portion called venter Fig. So life 'Cycle in Riccia is diplohaplontic.