Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844. And as in material, so also in intellectual production. Job security has ceased to exist, the trades and professions of the past have largely disappeared and life-long careers are barely memories. The slogan of the hour is austerity, cuts and falling living standards. It is a systemic crisis of capitalism on a world scale. From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns.
In other words, the petty bourgeoisie has a divided allegiance towards the two decisive classes in capitalist society. Therefore, reality appears in Hegel in a mystified, alienated form. They said that animals, including man with his mind, his ideas and beliefs were simply matter organised in a certain way. A Caricature of Marxism In his classic work, What is history? The earliest forms of life already contain within them the embryo of all future developments. For example, if someone asks how much someone else is worth, the question is now generally taken as asking how much money that person has.
The Marxist bourgeoisie is always guilty, while the Marxist proletariat is always innocent. These factors will turn into their opposite. In one word, it creates a world after its own image. Marx describes the worker as a soldier, and as a slave. Lenin once observed that a man on the edge of a cliff does not reason. In order to become competitive in world markets, Italy would need to sack 500,000 workers and the remainder would have to accept a wage reduction of thirty percent.
One sees admiring students staggering from his lectures muttering 'What a brilliant man! Wage-labour rests exclusively on competition between the laborers. If China is not producing at the same pace as before, countries like Brazil. In Marxist theory, the bourgeoisie directly or indirectly control productive property: They might own factories, mills, workshops, or other businesses; they might own the land such business are built on, or own services like railroads or power grids that such businesses depend on; they might be shareholders in companies that own such things, or own banks or lending institutions that such businesses are indebted to. Our intelligent designer turns out to be not so intelligent after all. This complex edifice of forms and ideas is sometimes referred to as the social superstructure. Most people turn away from these barbarities in disgust.
This innate fear of change is deeply rooted in the collective psyche. All of a sudden, the economic theories of Karl Marx are being taken very seriously indeed. Due to their wealth, the bourgeoisies had the power to control pretty much of everything and the proletarians had little or no say in any political issues. In returning to its starting point, philosophy does not merely repeat a long-surpassed stage. Karl Heinrich Marx 1818-1883 was a Prussian-German philosopherand revolutionary socialist. This excessive difference has already provoked growing resentment, which is turning to fury that spills over onto the streets in one country after another. Again, from a scientific standpoint, no other result was possible at that point of social development.
This is what is now known as phase transitions. For the immense major part of the history of our species, people lived in societies where private property, in the modern sense, did not exist. The development of Modern Industry, therefore, cuts from under its feet the very foundation on which the bourgeoisie produces and appropriates products. In that sense it represented a real revolution in philosophy. . Because there is too much civilisation, too much means of subsistence, too much industry, too much commerce. For reasons of space, it is impossible to explain here all the laws of dialectics developed by Hegel and perfected by Marx.
To object to such a formulation seems to be somewhat pointless, not scientific but merely scholastic. Nicos Poulantzas: 'Classes in Contemporary Capitalism'; London; 1975; p 119, 121. When the bourgeoisie begin to see the proletarians as 'people of a different kind' i. All the preceding classes that got the upper hand, sought to fortify their already acquired status by subjecting society at large to their conditions of appropriation. To try to understand it would therefore be a pointless exercise. One of those things was the Revolution of 1848.
This class hadrulers that were sympathetic to capitalism. But every class struggle is a political struggle. There is an enormous increase in tensions in society, even in the richest country in the world. And despite what the politicians say about the need to curb the deficit, debts on the scale that have been run up cannot be repaid. They also hide from your view the fact that our already secures those unalienable human rights equally for all people. The essential condition for the existence, and for the sway of the bourgeois class, is the formation and augmentation of capital; the condition for capital is wage-labour. With history of class conflicts and the rise of capitalism, Marx claims that the bourgeoisie have created their own gravediggers.