This stems from the sociological term anomie meaning a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises from the inability to reasonably expect life to be predictable. Unlike the Functionalists and , Weber approached the discipline of sociology in a different manner. Their perspectives on religion differ on some aspects. His first major sociological work was 1893. In his theory of suicide, he explains differences in suicide rates across societies as the result of different levels of solidarity and its opposite, anomie. First, Durkheim took most of his data from earlier researchers, notably and , who were much more careful in generalizing from their own data.
There are many cases when the interests of such organizations intersect, and instead of cooperating and carrying out mutually accepted decisions, they try to act in the interest of their organization only. Having been born during the period wherein immense industrialization characterized the different parts of Europe, Karl Marx 1818-1883 was particularly attuned of the changes in social, political, and economic systems taking place in the region. Unlike his contemporaries and , he did not focus on what motivates the actions of individuals an approach associated with , but rather on the study of. Now it stroke into the market-place of life, slammed the door of the monastery behind it, and undertook to penetrate just that daily routine of life with its methodicalness. They both subscribe to studying religion scientifically and objectively Townsley, 2009.
In todays society someone who agrees with Durkheim would argue that the worker who works in retail is constantly interacting with other people, whether it is other workers or the customers. . In the state of anomie, every person would be able to do whatever he liked to do, but this would cause chaos in the society. Durkheim offers an interpretation of law which is different from Marx and Weber. His theory of rationalization showed us why people acted as they did.
Durkheim applied that more mechanical solidarity. There is also no place for personalization in such a society. The fact that the aristocrats were utterly unaware of the precariousness of their position also made them overconfident, interested in dabbling in the new ideas partly simply because they were new and exciting. The two aspects of the individual can be in a state of tension but they are interconnected and mutually necessary. Conformity means to be or. Structure Weber: Although he recognized certain aspects of structure, he believed that the social action was far too significant.
Sociological theorists often purpose radical ideas that makes one wonder how anyone could synthesize such notions. According to Marx, laws have been designed to serve the interests of capitalism and the ruling class of capitalists. Marx was not alone in his theory. Weber also spoke of three types of leadership namely, traditional authority, charismatic authority, and rational-legal authority. He believed society is becoming more rationalized and bureaucratic over time. With reliance on social facts or those phenomena external to the individual, the patterns and causes of human behavior could be understood and uncovered. Social stratification also played a key role.
Marx explains in the Preface to the Critique of Political Economy that the relations of production in essence represent the economic structure of society on which the legal and political superstructures are built. Weber expressed that bureaucracy was a key characteristic the modern society because this is seen in all institutions in the industrial society. This representation of society as a thing outside the individual represents another side of the human being — the body on one hand as individually represented and the social on the other. Durkheim also argues that morality is characterized not just by this obligation, but is also something that is desired by the individual. In his opinion, lack of regulation has a very negative impact on the individuals because they always need some norms to regulate their lives.
But if nothing external can restrain this capacity, it can only be a source of torment to itself. Instead, he envisioned society as promoting civil religion, in which, for example, civic celebrations, parades, and patriotism take the place of church services. On the one hand Durkheim belief that religion started with totenism, where expressions of societal values are eulogized and sanctified. Similarly, he points out that religions that give little importance to the concept of god exist, such as , where the are much more important than any individual deity. In identifying the issues of class based in economics and the exploitation of workers, Marx sought to explain and change the social scheme of society. Each organ is dependent on the other each individual is dependent on the others. In order to bring end to it, the government would have to adopt different policies which would entirely prohibit this type of services in the country.
With mechanization came mass unemployment, which allowed for much competition among workers for jobs in factories and such. Kessel 1983 highlights that, in Marx position, religion was not an accident or mistake, but rather, the logical result of man's inability to realize himself concretely in his actual existence. He or she is relegated to a wage laborer and according to Marx, a seller of themselves. For Durkheim, the primitive society is characterized by mechanical solidarity, that is, it is held together by the likeness among people Ritzer, 2011. This could be accomplished through religion and kinship however it could also be accomplished through participation in occupational groups.
These social facts were outside the individual and were capable of exercising power over the individual influencing behavior. Religion then is an example of the controlling and governing capability of ideas. He is not the one who makes the instructions, but he is the one who is required to put them into practice. By forced division of labour Durkheim means a situation where power holders, driven by their desire for , results in people doing the work they are unsuited for. Created in the middle of the 19th century, it is a form of dehumanization.
In , Durkheim attempted to answer the question of what holds the society together. There is no place for subjective opinions in them because rationality rules the society. In , Durkheim, Weber, and are considered as the holy trinity. Ultimately balance can be restored through organic solidarity and in regard for the interdependence brought on by the division of labor. Egoistic suicide corresponds to a low level of social integration.