The status of soil conservation problems in India is presented in Table 1. On flat lands, the provision of drainage channels was essential in kharif season due to low permeability of soils. Every gram of resource used by the weed is one less gram for the crop. By rotating different types of crops in successive years, soil fertility can be naturally maintained. Users can also find details on hydrology project, rain water harvesting, repair, renovation and restoration. Tillage and winter wheat residue management effects on water infiltration and storage.
Impact of tillage practices on organic carbon and nitrogen storage in cool, humid soils of eastern Canada. This study was carried out with the objective of increasing biomass potential, improving livestock productivity and to arrest environmental degradation. The research and training centres were further strengthened. Adequate awareness seminar shall be organized and sufficient training shall be provided for the plumber for the installation and maintenance. Snow clad region devoid of vegetation , alpine meadow and grass region and forest region.
Directly deal to reduce the rain drop impact, increase the infiltration rate, reduce runoff volume and decrease the velocity of runoff and wind. A brief account of the work done on soil and water conservation in India is being highlighted below, broadly as identification and description of the problem, some results of practical value, and projection of the problem. The problem: the nation as a whole; pp. All India Coordinated Research Project was established in the 5th Five Year Plan, with mandate of research on increasing crop and forage production in dry lands by adopting soil and water conservation measures on watershed basis. A forestation programmes may be undertaken at local and community level and also on regional and national level.
Unfortunately, it has not attracted the attention that it deserves. For erosion control in mountainous regions more attention was paid. Overall, the strategies of soil conservation should be based on the following main points: I. Only by doing this will food production keep pace with demand and the productivity of land be preserved for future generations. Bulk density as a soil indicator during conversion to no-tillage. The review is not exhaustive as it is beyond the scope of this book.
Fifth Five Year Plan 1974-75 to 1977-78 : In this five year plan the problems undertaken during previous plans were continued for investigating more results. Consequently, during the framing of the first year plan and early in the second five year plan, a chain of 9 Soil Conservation Research Demonstration and Training Centres were established Table 12. While this effect may not be desirable if floods endanger life or if the sediment originates from productive land, this process of addition to a is a natural process that can rejuvenate soil chemistry through mineralization. In this direction, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Indian Council of Agricultural Research made a combine effort to delineate the entire geographical area of country into ten 10 soil conservation regions. Conceptually, contour ditching works on the principle that when suitably designed, it stores most of the runoff from a design rain storm and hence cuts off a vital portion of the runoff. In: Lal R, Hobbs P, Uphoff N, Hansen D.
Water then evaporates from the soil leaving the salt behind. Usually, the retention of 30% surface cover by residues characterizes the lower limit of classification for conservation-tillage, but other conservation objectives for the practice include conservation of time, fuel, earthworms, soil water, soil structure and nutrients. Here, we present a long-term P flow analysis for the Indian agri-food sector from 1988 to 2011. The findings will contribute as a technical reference for the promotion of hedgerow based multitier agroforestry for resource conservation and fertility restoration of sloping lands. A simple governance hurdle concerns how we name and value the land and what we call it and this can be changed by cultural adaptation. Tillage effects on corn production and soil physical conditions.
Fourth Five Year Plan 1969-70 to 1973-74 : During this five year plan the following main achievements were obtained: 1. An added economic consideration is that tillage results in more wear and tear on machinery and higher maintenance costs for tractors than under zero-tillage systems. The aim of soil conservation strategies for cultivated land is to establish and maintain a good ground cover for controlling the soil erosion. Amongst the cultivated crops, bajra permitted the highest soil loss 10. The pasture lands consist of dense grass cover and normally not have the soil erosion problem. While many of us urbanites use or waste a lot of water, we rarely make an effort to conserve it.
East-West Coast and Island Region. The project envisages reclaiming 15,000 hectares of alkali soils during its life span of seven years. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. Code 330 defines standard methods recommended by the U. Further, productivity losses were valued at government minimum support prices of the study crops to compute the monetary losses in the major cereal, oilseed and pulse crops in the country. Quantification of Impacts on Landscape and Productivity, i.
Their main role is to act as supplement measure for agronomic measures used to control the flow of excess water and wind. The details Soil characteristic, profile, taxonomy classification are also given for each type of soil. When deciding the conservation measures to employ, the first preference should always be given to the agronomical measures; not to the mechanical measures, because of the following reasons: I. Research since that time has documented beyond doubt the importance of surface residues on soil water conservation and reduction in wind and water erosion ;. Its research centres were established in Nagaland, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Assam, Sikkim, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Goa and Lakshadweep. Particularly, tremendous efforts have been made on no-till in wheat under a rice-wheat rotation in the Indo-Gangetic plains.
Introduction to Soil Conservation: Soil and water conservation is essential to protect the productive lands of the world. The discussion of the benefits of rotations will be handled in other chapters of this publication. Sustainable practices for plant disease management in traditional farming systems. Sediment yield from stream bank D, E c. The establishment dates of different soil conservation research, demonstration and training centres in India are given in Table 1. Effect of residue management practices on soil physical environment, microclimate and plant growth. The land capability classification map is normally prepared by interpreting a standard soil survey map based on the specifications suggested by All India Soil and Land Use Survey Organisation Soil Survey Manual.