Kludge A word used to describe a solution to a problem that lacks elegance or that contains components for a purpose significantly different that their original design purpose. Decibel A measurement that refers to the ratio of the strength of one signalto another. The United States government agency that regulates electronic communications and the domestic manufacture and importation of communication equipment. Transport-level protocol that allows reliable request-response exchanges between two socket clients. As a solution, the two endpoints of the bus are normally terminated with a device called a that prevents this reflection.
Dual ring: This topology uses two rings to send the data, each in different direction. However, a tree network connected to another tree network is still topologically a tree network, not a distinct network type. Architecture The sum total of all of the specifications, protocols and implementations that define a particular networking system. The network topology can be categorized into various types such as a ring, bus, mesh, star, and tree topology. It is not used to connect user stations, but instead provides a synchronous signaling backbone that allows additional segments and repeaters to be connected to the network. Cable Range Range of network numbers that is valid for use by nodes on an extended AppleTalk network.
Parallel bridges must have different bridge numbers. Advantages of Mesh Topology 1. Datagram Logical grouping of information sent as a network layer unit over a transmission medium without prior establishment of a virtual circuit. Compare with excess rate and maximum rate. This is similar in some ways to a , where a linear or ring topology is used to connect systems in multiple directions.
Such signals have the same frequency, with individual characters encapsulated in control bits called start bits and stop bits that designate the beginning and end of each character. A de facto standard for management of networked devices using a simple request-response data retrieval mechanism. The repeaters are used to extend the maximum transmission distance of the physical layer, the point-to-point distance between the central node and the peripheral nodes. The satellites are stationed in space, typically in 35,786 km 22,236 mi above the equator. However, this was expensive in the early days of computing, since each computer except for the ones at each end required two receivers and two transmitters. If an unknown destination is targeted, the switch broadcasts to all ports but the source. Terminating equipment, such as terminals, telephones, and modems, supplied by the telephone company, installed at customer sites, and connected to the telephone company network.
Logical topology refers to how data is actually transferred in a network as opposed to its physical design. In addition, nodes can create their own paths through the network because there is no gateway compu … ter. Modem A device that can covert data signals between analog and digital signaling systems. See also account management, fault management, performance management, and security management. In contrast, a switch knows which computer is connected to each of its ports. Unlike ring topology, the data can be transmitted and received from multiple sources to destinations. Deterministic Load Distribution Technique for distributing traffic between two bridges across a circuit group.
Load Balancing The distribution of workloads across multiple computing resources to optimize resource use, minimize response time, maximize throughput, and avoid overload of any single resource. Link State Routing Algorithm Algorithm Routing algorithm in which each router broadcasts or multicasts information regarding the cost of reaching each of its neighbors to all nodes in the internetwork. The way in which constituent parts are arranged. The former replies to requests from programs requiring communication; the latter establishes sessions between programs. Firewall Router or access server, or several routers or access servers, designated as a buffer between any connected public networks and a private network.
The value of a permanent point-to-point network is unimpeded communications between the two endpoints. Flooding Traffic-passing technique used by switches and bridges in which traffic received on an interface is sent out all of the interfaces of that device except the interface on which the information was originally received. European network connecting universities and research institutes. More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies. The network does not necessarily have to resemble a star to be classified as a star network, but all of the nodes on the network must be connected to one central device. Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced with routers. See also active monitor and ring monitor.
Spanning-Tree Protocol hello packet that is sent out at configurable intervals to exchange information among bridges in the network. Example: Two star topologies associated exhibits hybrid topology networks. Their mysterious inner-machinations, or what a mathematician would call a non-linear design, makes them quite hard to troubleshoot, but if they're built right, there won't be any reason to troubleshoot. A switch is distinct from a hub in that it only forwards the frames to the physical ports involved in the communication rather than all ports connected. Partial mesh topology occurs when some nodes are connected to every other, but others Nodes adjacent to each other are directly connected while others are indirectly connected with the data passing through one or more intermediate nodes. Transmission speed ranges from 200 million bits per second to more than 500 million bits per second.
. This priority defines the order in which calls are reconnected. An evolution of station telephone numbers. Allows routers involved in a topology change to synchronize at the same time, while not involving routers that are unaffected by the change. Cable The transmission media of a network. Reboot A user activity where the user starts a computing device without interrupting its source of electrical power. T-2 Four multiplexed T-1 lines offering a communication channel at 6.