Schachter and Singer then manipulated the participants giving them cues which placed them on one of four groups: epinephrine informed, epinephrine ignorant, epinephrine misinformed, and placebo. If a person experiences a state of arousal for which they have an appropriate explanation e. From the aim three propositions or hypotheses were devised: 1. Therefore, this means that by manipulating the cues available to an aroused subject, his or her emotional responses can be manipulated. It seems that the experimenters were only able to make participants less happy but not angry.
For example, your heart might race because you have been exercising and not because you are afraid. At the sight of her husband, Stacy's heart began to pound and her breathing became short and quick. The two-factor theory suggests that emotion comes from a combination of a state of arousal and a cognition that makes best sense of the situation the person is in. Schachter and Singer argue that their findings support their two-factor theory of emotion. Control Group - Placebo - participants were given an injection that would have no effect and were given no instructions of what to expect. For example, people who are forced to smile pleasantly at a social function will have a better time at the event than they would if they had frowned or carried a more neutral facial expression. Were there marked differences in physiological arousal associated with each emotional state? These physical reactions in turn create emotional reactions such as anger, fear and sadness.
They were more euphoric than the placebo subjects and the epinephrine informed subjects. Over time, several different theories of emotion, shown in Figure 2, have been proposed to explain how the various components of emotion interact with one another. The effects of the adrenalin are an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, blood sugar level, respiration rate, and blood flow to the muscles and brain, with an accompanying decrease in blood flow to the skin. The sight of the oncoming car veering into her lane is the stimulating event. Together, these are known as the components of emotion.
In a 1962 experiment, Schachter and Singer put their theory to the test. For example, if you encounter a bear in the woods, you might immediately begin to think that you are in great danger. Like the James-Lange theory, the Schachter-Singer theory proposes that people do infer emotions based on physiological responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 953-969. This proved the original of Schachter and Singer, that is, cognitive labelling informed, ignorant or misinformed together with general autonomic arousal euphoric or angry lead to the emergence of emotions.
It was clear from the study that cues had a strong effect on euphoria. If you experience the same physical responses on a date with your significant other, you might interpret those responses as love, affection, or arousal. Male participants were randomly assigned to one of several groups. Only after there is a physiological arousal and a cognitive process, are we able to undergo an emotional experience. What would happen if you were walking toward your car on a bright sunny day and an elderly woman began to approach you? As her sweaty palms grip the steering wheel of her car, Lila labels her physiological response, as 'I am afraid. There are two key aspects that take place in this theory: 1 physical arousal of the nervous system, and 2 cognitive interpretation of that arousal.
For example, you are sitting in a dark room all by yourself and all of a sudden you hear breathing sound behind you. Those injected with the saline solution, were given the same treatment as the epinephrine conditions. One bridge was a very scary arousing , which was very narrow and suspended above a deep ravine. With a few subjects the epinephrine did not have any effect at all. Suddenly, the car swerves into her lane, and for a few terrifying minutes, it looks like both vehicles are about to be involved in a head-on collision. In the anger condition, the ignorant group felt the angriest.
First, he suggested, people can experience physiological reactions linked to emotions without actually feeling those emotions. The experimenter again told them the side effects would only last around 15—20 minutes, but they were told they would probably feel their feet go numb, and have an itching sensation over parts of their body, and a slight headache. We do not usually experience emotions in the way in which Schachter and Singer induced them. The first path is quick, while the second enables more processing about details of the stimulus. The experiment definitely lacked ecological validity. In both of these examples, neither theory is fully supported because physiological arousal does not seem to be necessary for the emotional experience, but this arousal does appear to be involved in enhancing the intensity of the emotional experience.
None knew anything about the experiment beforehand, but 11 were so extremely suspicious that their data was automatically discarded. At several points in during the questionnaire, the actor made comments about the questions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 970-988. Two other prominent views arise from the work of Robert Zajonc and Joseph LeDoux. After the drug was taken, the subjects followed one of four different routes: neutral, happy, anger, or anxiety conditions. If you encounter a hissing, spitting, and clawing animal, chances are you will quickly realize that the animal is frightened or defensive and leave it alone.
Negative emotional biasing of unexplained arousal. He also believed in what we might casually refer to as a gut feeling—that we can experience an instantaneous and unexplainable like or dislike for someone or something Zajonc, 1980. For the happy conditions subjects were reminded that they had done very well on an earlier mock intelligence test. The participants were 184 male college students, taking classes in introductory psychology at Minnesota University. If a subject has a state of physiological arousal with no explanation he will label this state due to the cues available to him. All the participants in the euphoria and anger situation were not actually angry. The Cannon-Bard Theory The physiologist Walter Cannon disagreed with the James-Lange theory, posing three main arguments against it:.
The stooge was introduced as another subject and the experimenter stated that both had had the Suproxin injection and that they had to wait for 20 minutes while the Suproxin was absorbed into the bloodstream, after which they would both be given the same tests of vision. They were told how horrible they had done on a previous intelligence examination, and were asked how many times they had to repeat a grade in school. We might feel angry when we are betrayed, fear when we are threatened, and surprised when something unexpected happens. A review of research on Schachter's theory of emotion and the misattribution of Arousal. Strangely, when asking the males why they called the woman they all had reasons for why they called her. Some of the participants received injections of epinephrine that caused bodily changes that mimicked the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system; however, only some of these men were told to expect these reactions as side effects of the injection.