The rate and magnitude of soil erosion by tillage is controlled by the following factors: Type of Tillage Equipment Tillage equipment that lifts and carries will tend to move more soil. This type of erosion is called surface creep. The four most common soil erosion prevention methods are vegetation, geotextiles, mulch, and retaining walls. These distinct channels where the soil has been washed away are called rills when they are small enough to not interfere with field machinery operations. The rate of soil erosion depends on the type and duration of precipitation and the nature of the soil. Mineralization — To help crops reach higher yields or full potential, sometimes crushed rock or chemical supplements are added to the farmland, this helps combat mineral depletion.
It is estimated that formation of one centimetre of soil requires several years. The goal is to mimic a steady, heavy rain. Cross-slope cultivation and contour farming techniques discourage the concentration of surface water runoff and limit soil movement. Also, wind erosion can create adverse operating conditions, preventing timely field activities. When used in conjunction with growing vegetation, it is even more effective.
This can lead to damage of the soil and nutrient loss. Erosion is caused by water, wind and ice. The slope of the land is a potent factor in determining the velocity of water and the consequent soil erosion. Dust also represents the potential for wind erosion. This may cut off transportation lines.
More commonly found in lesser developed nations due to the difficulty of using mechanized farming equipment in the terraces. This system also is adaptable to a variety of sites. Overgrazing: In India pasture land area is decreasing day by day due to expansion of agricultural land. They are widespread throughout the country. The removal by erosion of large amounts of rock from a particular region, and its deposition elsewhere, can result in a lightening of the load on the and. French drains are installed with a slope of about 1 inch of drop per 10 feet of horizontal run.
Erosion should not be confused with weathering. The farmers maintain productivity of soil by applying chemical fertilizers but make less use of organic manures. Some Other Causes of Soil Erosion: 1. Given the right conditions, even large soil particles can be picked up and redistributed by the wind. During last decade the nutrients deficiency has been considered as the main cause of poor productivity and crop failure. Impact of Soil Degradation: The following are the impacts of soil degradation: 1. Increased deposition of sediment and runoff can lead to downstream.
The turbulence of surface runoff has the potential to cause more erosion than the initial raindrop impact. Thermal erosion also affects the , where wave action and near-shore temperatures combine to undercut permafrost bluffs along the shoreline and cause them to fail. In general, given similar vegetation and ecosystems, areas with more precipitation especially high-intensity rainfall , more wind, or more storms are expected to have more erosion. The force of attraction relies on the masses of the two objects and the distance between them. A typical example of this phenomenon is the Middle East dust bowls that took place in the course of the great depression. The whole process of landform formation is known as. Plant and residue cover protects the soil from raindrop impact and splash, tends to slow down the movement of runoff water and allows excess surface water to infiltrate.
Soil movement by rainfall raindrop splash is usually greatest and most noticeable during short-duration, high-intensity thunderstorms. This increases the erodibility of the soil and compounds the problem. Water Erosion: During heavy rains, water removes a lot of soil. However, there are many practices that can curtail or limit erosion of vulnerable soils. Wind and water erosion often occur together. An extra cost of cultivation will be incurred due to the need to level up eroded surfaces. Examples can be seen in the flood regions result from glacial , which created the in the region of eastern.
All types of rock and soil are affected by erosion. To do so, use a small gardening shovel, cake server, spatula or your hands to make two vertical cuts on one short side of a bread pan where it meets the longer sides, then fold down or remove a little over half of that short side to expose the soil. Expansion of canal irrigation is also directly concerned with widespread water-logging and salinity problems in arid and semiarid areas. Greater frequency of floods and threat to communication channels. You can use this fact as a memory jogger if you remember that 'a little rill will run downhill. Depending on glacier regime, even steep alpine lands can be preserved through time with the help of ice. The nodulation and growth of some leguminous crops and nitrogen fixation are inhibited by different pesticides.
A covered in rills and gullies due to erosion processes caused by rainfall: , erosion refers to the development of small, concentrated flow paths which function as both sediment source and delivery systems for erosion on hillslopes. Tillage Erosion Tillage erosion is the redistribution of soil through the action of tillage and gravity. Wither Hills near Blenheim had many severe tunnel gullies in the mid-1950s. Gully erosion Gully erosion occurs on unconsolidated subsoils. The result of rill erosion is a set of small channels viewed on a slope that are caused by running water. For example, in the , it is estimated that soil loss due to wind erosion can be as much as 6100 times greater in drought years than in wet years. Why do you think would this change happen? Which of the following statements about artificial erosion is true? What are the 3 kinds? Soil Surface Roughness Soil surfaces that are not rough offer little resistance to the wind.