He was born at Ulm in Wurttemberg, Germany and after six weeks the family moved to Munich. These methods impact us daily through advertising and other media. This was a huge breakthrough for behavioral studies. Watson's work and his contribution to psychology through the development of methodological behaviorism is still felt today. Watson believed his controlled experiment would produce the desired fear conditioning because, in his opinion, babies fear loud sounds.
Watson, a married man, was having an affair with Rosalie Rayner, his graduate student and research partner. I think that we can all agree that the study was both harmful and stressful for Little Albert. A strength of classical conditioning theory is that it is. He carried out an experiment on the Little Albert although his experiment received criticism. However, what did startle him and cause him to be afraid was if a hammer was struck against a steel bar behind his head. The setting for the experiment lacks ecological validity because Albert was away from his playroom and familiar nurses.
Dependent Variable - Whether Little Albert cried or not. Some believe the infant was sick when the experiments took place. When this happened, he sat up, fell over and turned his head away from the dog and started crying. Download file to see previous pages It does not leave out the fact that conditioned stimuli can lead to generalization of stimuli. This was done seven times over the next seven weeks, and each time Little Albert burst into tears. The apparatus used in the experiment was a white laboratory rat, a hammer and a steel bar.
Baby Albert was 11 months old when the study started and it lasted a month. This procedure was repeated for more than five times. He then fell over, got onto all fours and crawled away from the rat in a hurry so the blocks were given to him again and did what he did before. The other side is nurture which John Watson strongly supports. In addition to the sexual desires that preoccupied his mind, he also resorted to theft. John grew up in a mixed up household, his father was a known drinker while his mother was a devout Christian.
In the film, the infant seemed unusually passive, unresponsive and unaware of social cues. Fridlund, PhD, who details the findings in an article in press at the History of Psychology. Despite being one of the pioneering studies for classical conditioning and the behaviourism paradigm, the new evidence combined with the fact it was only a case study makes it extremely difficult to generalise to a further population. He started to play with them while smiling and making his baby noises. The experiment was an adaptation of earlier studies on classical conditioning of stimulus response, one most common by Ivan Pavlov, depicting the conditioning of stimulus response in dogs.
All the phases of the experiment were carried out in a lab rather than in real life settings and environments. Watson believed were developed from external stimuli and were a conditioned response. Using a child in a psychological experiment was a bold step; Watson wanted to follow the guidelines Pavlov used to condition dogs. During this portion of the experiment, four people were in the room. The controlled stimulus is the sight of the rat and the controlled response is his reaction which in this case was fear.
It is now believed that Little Albert was disabled at birth and Dr. Since then, Little Albert's fate and identity have been a recurring question among psychology scholars, including Appalachian State University psychologist Hall P. The film of the experiment The Little Albert experiment was a showing of in humans. Monitor on Psychology, 41, 1. When Albert was given the dog he whimpered and shook his head, keeping his hands away from the dog. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3 1 , 1—14.
This dying out of a learned response is called extinction. They argue that all other characteristics that develop later in life are caused by maturation McLeod, 2007. Though Watson had discussed what might be done to remove Albert's conditioned fears, he had no time to attempt such desensitization with Albert, and it is likely that the infant's fear of furry things continued post-experimentally. This is transferral of response to other settings. The blocks were then given to Albert to calm him down.
Watson later applied the idea of creating paired associations to a successful career in advertising. In 1920, behaviorist John Watson and his assistant Rosalie Rayner began to conduct one of the first experiments done with a child. As he tried to reach for the animal the second time and heard the frightening noise, Albert began to cry. His father disappeared and divorced the mother years later Hickey, 2003. With time, Watson changed his career from a psychologist in the advertisement field. International Journal of Sustainable Development, 5, pp. These accusations have been challenged in another academic article which states that the child was actually William called Albert by his family Barger, and that the child was, in fact, healthy.