Term The immigration quota laws passed in the 1920s: Definition favored immigrants from northern and western Europe. Metcalf's testimony about the theory of evolution. Term The novel This Side of Paradise concerned: Definition modernist student life at Princeton. Far from being one who would insist on a larger fine, Bryan opposed the inclusion of any fine in the Butler Act. Supreme Court--that laws forbidding the teaching of evolution were unconstitutional. Scopes was never jailed for a moment he violated a misdemeanor statute, recall, not a felony , never faced the prospect of jail, and was welcome in Dayton both before, during, and after the trial.
For the next few years, textbooks in Tennessee had all mention of evolution removed. Even up until his death at the age of 65, his outdoor Sunday School lectures were attended each week by over 5,000 people and he was the editor of a newspaper as well as the author of a popular syndicated column on Bible topics that appeared in over 100 papers each week. Click for a concurring opinion. Nothing remotely approaching this scene ever happened at the actual Scopes trial. Yet throughout the twentieth century and into the twenty-first century, the debate amongst members of the scientific and religious communities has continued to be a divisive and widely debated topic. One cannot claim the shield of metaphore while bearing the sword of bigotry. They testified that Scopes told them that man and all other mammals had evolved from one-celled organism.
No clergymen mean-spirited or otherwise were involved in the instigation, planning, or hosting of the trial. Near the end of his long career, Bryan was a firm religious fundamentalist, but urged the prosecution to fight its battle on constitutional grounds. Too left-leaning politically to be electable so much for being a conservative! Darrow does, however, inject a nasty tone into the trial on several occasions. Bryan is also still regarded as one of the greatest if not the greatest orators in American history. The effects of libelously portraying the Christians in Dayton as goons and idiots can be seen in numerous student films as , the main point of which is to score points by smearing Christians. He was a peasant come home to the barnyard. There was no Reverend Jeremiah Brown in Dayton and no prayer meeting announced from the bench.
In March 1925, the Tennessee legislature passed a measure known as the Butler Act that made it illegal for teachers in the public schools to present as factual any theory of creation other than the biblical account. He argued that cross-examinations were not proper in this context and that any search for the truth had manifestly not been the goal of the trial thus far. Although never explicitly agreeing to do so, Darrow gave every impression that he and his co-counsel would be willing to take the stand to explain their views see , p. In 1927, the Tennessee overturned the Monkey Trial verdict on a technicality but left the constitutional issues unresolved until 1968, when the U. This ad was then answered by Scopes at the encouragement of a few town fathers of Dayton on both sides of the evolution issue. Cornelius cited earlier , after the trial there was a quick and enthusiastic effort to found a new college in Dayton in honor of Bryan.
Term Jazz: Definition blended African and Europe musical traditions. Time has a way of simplifying events and today Darrow and Bryan are remembered as the key adversaries in the trial, even though Hays for the defense and Stewart for the prosecution played equally important roles at the trial. Evolution applied to fish, birds, and beasts would not materially affect man's view of his own responsibilities. Bryan in The Memoirs of William Jennings Bryan 1925 , p. Yet Darrow had a surprise up his sleeve. John Scopes, a young popular high school science teacher, agreed to stand as defendant in a test case to challenge the law. In sum, Bryan's understanding of evolution was not weak, it simply did not match the consensus views among leading evolutionists of his day.
Scopes replied that while filling in for the regular biology teacher during an illness, he had assigned readings on evolution from the book for review purposes. There were no contemporary criticisms of the Judge in any newspaper of which we are aware as to either his demeanor or his actions relating to the citation of Darrow for contempt of court. The next day, Raulston ruled that Bryan could not return to the stand and that his testimony the previous day should be stricken from evidence. The Tennessee statute gave an unfair advantage to fundamentalist Christianity over objective science evolution in the classroom. The early 1920s found social patterns in chaos. Scopes and informally known as the Scopes Monkey Trial -was an American legal case in 1925 in which a high school biology teacher John Scopes was accused of violating the state's Butler Act that made it unlawful to teach evolution. The … trial was a greatembarrassment to the state and probably kept other fundamentaliststates from passing similar laws.
This brazen, unfounded insult—combined with several others thrown in—resulted in a contempt of court citation against Darrow the next day, after tempers had subsided and the Judge had given himself an opportunity to fully reflect upon the implications of Darrow's conduct. Holy rollers rolled in the surrounding hills and riverbanks. There was a great deal of interest in the Scopes trial which tookplace in Tennessee in 1925. He was, tragically, the victim of a fundamentalist witch hunt. Before a crowd that had swelled to about 5,000, the defense read into the record, for purpose of appellate review, excerpts from the prepared statements of eight scientists and four experts on religion who had been prepared to testify. At these banquets, the townspeople and visiting press were treated to wonderful and winsome speeches by both Bryan and Darrow.
From the very onset of the case which he himself helped instigate, John Scopes unquestionably enjoyed the best legal defense team ever assembled for a misdemeanor trial in the history of the United States and quite possibly the best ever assembled for any trial. The street leading to the local courthouse was busy with vendors peddling sandwiches, watermelon, calico, and books on biology. Cards Term Political and social radicalism arose after World War I because: Definition postwar culture was entering an era of bewildering change. As Bryan spoke, Judge Raulston and his entire family listened attentively from their front pew seats. But the attempt was futile and Darrow abandoned it with the empty assertion that his words in that earlier case spoke for themselves and needed no defense. Rappalyea, a modernist Methodist with contempt for the new law, argued to other town leaders that a trial would be a way of putting Dayton on the map.